RLN1:Prorelaxin H1

Gene Name
Prorelaxin H1
Protein ID
Chromosome ID
HPP Status
Protein Name
Prorelaxin H1


relaxin 1

prorelaxin H1

"prorelaxin H1"

relaxin 1 (H1)


preprorelaxin H1




[Reference: http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=RLN1 ]
Chromosomal Position
9p24.1 | Start:5334969 End:5334969

Entrez Gene Summary for RLN1
Relaxins are known endocrine and autocrine/paracrine hormones, belonging to the insulin gene superfamily. In humans there are three non-allelic relaxin genes, RLN1, RLN2 and RLN3, where RLN1 and RLN2 share high sequence homology. The protein encoded by this gene is synthesized as a single-chain polypeptide but the active form consists of an A chain and a B chain linked by disulfide bonds. Relaxin is produced by the ovary, and targets the mammalian reproductive system to ripen the cervix, elongate the pubic symphysis and inhibit uterine contraction. It may have additional roles in enhancing sperm motility, regulating blood pressure, controlling heart rate and releasing oxytocin and vasopressin. (provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013)

UniProtKB Summary for RLN1
Function: Relaxin is an ovarian hormone that acts with estrogen to produce dilatation of the birth canal in many mammals. May be involved in remodeling of connective tissues during pregnancy, promoting growth of pubic ligaments and ripening of the cervix

[Reference: http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=RLN1 ]
External IDs
Hgnc ID: 10026 EntrezGene ID: 6013 Ensembl ID: ENSG00000107018
[Reference: http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=RLN1 ]
Reference Source

Gene Reference Into Function (GeneRIF)

PubMed IDGeneRIF TextLast Update
12865351demonstrated that prorelaxin has the ability to facilitate cell migration processes exclusive of its ability to stimulate cell proliferation2010-01-21
15695505Data describe the conformation of the relaxin-binding site of the leucine-rich G-protein-coupled receptor 7.2010-01-21
15956699results suggest that relaxin may contribute to follicle development through the mechanism of angiogenesis in the ovary2010-01-21
15956701rhRLX increases cardiac output and reduces arterial load irrespective of gender2010-01-21
15956702In naturally occurring cycles, increased serum relaxin is associated with augmented renal hemodynamics2010-01-21
15956731roles of the relaxin system in three potential causes of preterm birth are discussed2010-01-21
15956736human relaxin may accelerate the early stages of orthodontic tooth movement in rats2010-01-21
15956746relaxin-like hormones appear to be present early during C-cell hyperplasia and potentially functional relaxin/INSL3 ligand-receptor systems are present in human medullary thyroid carcinoma tissues and cell lines2010-01-21
16172427rhRLX increases cardiac output and reduces arterial load in hypertensive rats without reducing blood pressure. Time of response is dependent on model of hypertension. Rats with angiotensin II hypertension responded more rapidly to rhRLX than SHR.2010-01-21
16303766Relaxin stimulates leukocyte adhesion and migration through a relaxin receptor LGR7-dependent mechanism2010-01-21
17363522Relaxin signaling plays a role in prostate cancer progression.2010-01-21
17509748Relaxin signalling in THP-1 cells uses a novel phosphotyrosine-dependent pathway.2010-01-21
17804602Relaxin 1 is a candidate gene controlling lung function development in mice.2008-03-17
18035445Relaxin was positively related to insulin sensitivity and negatively to beta-cell function. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the correlation between relaxin and HOMA2 remained significant after adjustment for age, BMI.2010-01-21
18718015long-term exposure to relaxin confers growth inhibitory and anti-invasive properties in oestrogen-independent tumours in vivo, which may in part be mediated through a down-regulation of S100A42010-01-21
19101597RXFP1-inactive relaxin activates human glucocorticoid receptor.2010-01-21
19178384The hydrogen-bond network and electrostatic interactions between charged groups in INSL5 by NMR-monitored temperature and pH titrations was characterized.2010-01-21
19329780The antitumor effect of Rlx was mediated through degradation of tumor stroma, which provided increased access of infiltrating antitumor immune cells to their target tumor cells.2010-01-21
19467703decidual RLN expression is independent of lipopolysaccharide but may induce a local sterile inflammatory process which potentially contributes to extracellular matrix degradation and weakening of the fetal membranes2010-01-21
19481729There were no correlation between relaxin concentrations and the cervical length, indicating that relaxin is probably not the cause of preterm shortening of the cervix2010-01-21
19695764Women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss demonstrate attenuated levels of serum relaxin across all pregnancy trimesters.2010-02-01
19833242Relaxin is a potent stimulator of osteoclastogenesis from hematopoietic precursors and regulates the activity of mature osteoclasts.2010-05-03
20023247Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)2010-01-20
20237496Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)2010-04-07
20332215In conclusion, we have identified S100A4 as a major mediator of the actions of relaxin in thyroid carcinoma cell motility and in vivo thyroid tumor angiogenesis.2010-07-19
20655530Endometrial expression of relaxin and its receptor in endometriosis.2011-01-15
21696394heterozygous loss at the RLN1 locus is not a genetic factor mediating high population-wide risk for testicular germ cell tumour, but do not exclude a contribution of this aberration in some cases of cancer2012-01-21
22180889[review] This study not only clarifies the role of relaxin in sperm, but could also open avenues of research into its use in fertility treatment.2012-08-18
23661525relaxin may promote the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells by regulating the expression of MMP-9 and facilitating ECM degradation.2013-08-31
23704950Notch signaling can down-regulate TGF-beta1/Smad3-induced fibroblast-myofibroblast transition and that RLX could exert its well known anti-fibrotic action through the up-regulation of this pathway.2014-01-04
23748429Recombinant human relaxin (RLX) may provide a novel therapy to manage atrial fibrillation in humans by reversing fibrosis and hypertrophy and by modulating cardiac ionic currents.2013-09-28
24640561Relaxin actions in pregnancy include increasing cervical pro-MMP-1 and pro-MMP-3 and decreasing TIMP-1, changes which soften the cervix.2014-05-03
24640563For the first time, we bring together the systemic (ovarian) and autocrine/paracrine (intrauterine) sources of RLN, in an attempt to understand how RLN contributes to premature birth in women.2014-05-03
24643989Rln enhanced synergistically BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation and bone formation.2015-02-21
26272327Serum concentrations of relaxin showed a positive association to duration of gestation among women with miscarriage but no association to duration of gestation among women with spontaneous onset of labour.2016-03-26


Relevant citations within the PubMed literature


Putative/known Functions


Homologues, Orthologues, Paralogues and Family

Sequence Similarity and Functional Annotation

Sequence Similarity

Db NameQuery UniSubject UniSequence LengthAlignment LengthIdentityCoverageMismatchesGap OpeningsQuery StartQuery EndSubject StartSubject EndEvalueBit Score
Reviewed non-human mammalian with experimental evidenceREL1_HUMANRELX_PIG18516953.8591.3576117185161823E-44173
Islam MT, Garg G, Hancock WS, Risk BA, Baker MS, Ranganathan S (2014) Protannotator: A Semiautomated Pipeline for Chromosome-Wise Functional Annotation of the "Missing" Human Proteome. J Proteome Res. 13, 76-83.

InterProScan Annotation

Uniprot IDInterpro IDGo IDTypeNameCategoryDescription
REL1_HUMANIPR016179GO:0005179DomainInsulin-likeMolecular Functionhormone activity
REL1_HUMANIPR016179GO:0005576DomainInsulin-likeCellular Componentextracellular region
REL1_HUMANIPR022421GO:0005179FamilyRelaxinMolecular Functionhormone activity
REL1_HUMANIPR022421GO:0005576FamilyRelaxinCellular Componentextracellular region
Islam MT, Garg G, Hancock WS, Risk BA, Baker MS, Ranganathan S (2014) Protannotator: A Semiautomated Pipeline for Chromosome-Wise Functional Annotation of the "Missing" Human Proteome. J Proteome Res. 13, 76-83.

Post Translational Modifications

Protein Protein Interactions

Best Available Mass Spectra without FDR


Evidence File
Fenyö, David; Beavis, Ronald C. (2015). "The GPMDB REST interface". Bioinformatics 31 (12): 2056–2058. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btv107. ISSN 1367-4803.
http://gpmdb.thegpm.org/ ">Global Proteome Machine Database - THE GPM


Peptide SequenceScoresPride IDSpectrum IDAnnotation
No results found.
Evidence File
Vizcaino JA, et al. 2016 update of the PRIDE database and related tools. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016 Jan 1;44(D1):D447-D456.
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/ ">PRIDE Archive

Proteomics DB

Evidence File
Wilhelm, M et al. (2014) Mass-spectrometry-based draft of the human proteome. Nature. 509:582-7.
https://www.proteomicsdb.org/ ">Proteomics DB