Gene Name
Protein ID
Chromosome ID
HPP Status
Protein Name



Energy homeostasis-associated protein




energy homeostasis-associated protein

energy homeostasis associated

chromosome 9 open reading frame 165

[Reference: http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=ENHO ]
Chromosomal Position
9p13.3 | Start:34521040 End:34521040

UniProtKB Summary for ENHO
Function: Involved in the regulation of glucose homestasis and lipid metabolism (By similarity)

[Reference: http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=ENHO ]
External IDs
Hgnc ID: 24838 EntrezGene ID: 375704 Ensembl ID: ENSG00000168913
[Reference: http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=ENHO ]
Reference Source

Gene Reference Into Function (GeneRIF)

PubMed IDGeneRIF TextLast Update
19041763Adropin is the name given to the secreted peptide encoded by the ORF in C9orf165. In mice, it is abundant in liver where it is regulated by dietary macronutrients. Adropin regulates expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and adipogenesis.2008-12-04
20837912Adropin has an endothelial protective function mediated via upregulation of eNOS expression through the VEGFR2-PI3K-Akt and VEGFR2-ERK1/2 pathways. Adropin therapy may thus be useful for limiting diseases characterized by endothelial dysfunction.2010-09-30
20837912a potential endothelial protective role of adropin that is likely mediated via upregulation of endothelial NO synthase expression through the VEGFR2-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt and VEGFR2-extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 pathways.2010-10-04
22318315Plasma adropin levels are regulated dietary macronutrients increasing with dietary fat content. Fasting suppresses plasma adropin. Adropin's actions are required for preventing insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance.2012-02-27
22872690Although males exhibit higher adropin levels that are reduced by obesity, aging and markers of insulin resistance are associated with low plasma adropin irrespective of sex.2012-12-22
22872690Plasma adropin levels were examined in 45 men and 85 woman. Adropin levels are higher in men than woman. Obesity is associated with low adropin levels in men. Aging and metabolic risk factors are associated with low adropin levels, irrespective of sex.2012-08-27
23314506The mean maternal and cord serum adropin in a gestational diabetes mellitus group were significantly lower than those of control women (P=0.01 and P<0.001, respectively).2014-02-15
23356444Adropin is an independent risk factor for cardiac syndrome X (CSX).2013-11-16
24113736Plasma adropin levels were found to be a new marker for diagnosing endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus.2014-07-19
24284417cord blood adropin levels were positively correlated with gestational age and placental weight but not with other fetal growth parameters.2014-11-08
24468600Assessment of serum adropin concentrations may provide a reliable indicator of fatty liver disease in obese adolescents2014-12-27
24731968decreased serum adropin levels are associated with the presence of acute myocardial infarction in coronary artery disease patients2015-04-04
24848071Release of adropin in the fed condition regulates fuel selection in skeletal muscle, promoting glucose oxidation over fat oxidation. The molecular mechanisms of adropin's effects involve acetylation (suggesting inhibition) of the transcriptional co-activator PGC1alpha, reducing PDK4 and CPT1B activity. Increased PGC1alpha acetylation by adropin may be mediated by inhibiting Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), a PGC1alpha deacetylase.2014-07-07
25282140Adropin levels are lower in patients with late saphenous vein graft occlusion and these reduced adropin levels, together with other factors, may lead to saphenous vein graft occlusion2015-09-10
25913544Adropin as a novel energy factor likely has the ability to regulate blood pressure2016-04-30
26371163Serum adropin level was negatively correlated with carotid beta-stiffness and positively correlated with plasma NOx level and cardiorespiratory fitness2016-02-27


Relevant citations within the PubMed literature


Putative/known Functions


Homologues, Orthologues, Paralogues and Family

Sequence Similarity and Functional Annotation

Sequence Similarity

Db NameQuery UniSubject UniSequence LengthAlignment LengthIdentityCoverageMismatchesGap OpeningsQuery StartQuery EndSubject StartSubject EndEvalueBit Score
Reviewed non-human mammalianENHO_HUMANENHO_MOUSE7676100100001761767E-1266
Islam MT, Garg G, Hancock WS, Risk BA, Baker MS, Ranganathan S (2014) Protannotator: A Semiautomated Pipeline for Chromosome-Wise Functional Annotation of the "Missing" Human Proteome. J Proteome Res. 13, 76-83.

Post Translational Modifications

Protein Protein Interactions

Best Available Mass Spectra without FDR


Evidence File
Fenyö, David; Beavis, Ronald C. (2015). "The GPMDB REST interface". Bioinformatics 31 (12): 2056–2058. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btv107. ISSN 1367-4803.
http://gpmdb.thegpm.org/ ">Global Proteome Machine Database - THE GPM


Peptide SequenceScoresPride IDSpectrum IDAnnotation
No results found.
Evidence File
Vizcaino JA, et al. 2016 update of the PRIDE database and related tools. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016 Jan 1;44(D1):D447-D456.
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/ ">PRIDE Archive