IFNL2:Interferon lambda-2

Gene Name
Interferon lambda-2
Protein ID
Chromosome ID
HPP Status
Protein Name
Interferon lambda-2


Cytokine Zcyto20

interleukin 28A


interleukin 28A (interferon, lambda 2)


interferon lambda 2

interferon, lambda 2


cytokine Zcyto20


interferon-lambda 2


interferon lambda-2

[Reference: http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=IFNL2 ]
Chromosomal Position
19q13.2 | Start:39268514 End:39268514

Entrez Gene Summary for IFNL2
This gene encodes a cytokine distantly related to type I interferons and the IL-10 family. This gene, interleukin 28B (IL28B), and interleukin 29 (IL29) are three closely related cytokine genes that form a cytokine gene cluster on a chromosomal region mapped to 19q13. Expression of the cytokines encoded by the three genes can be induced by viral infection. All three cytokines have been shown to interact with a heterodimeric class II cytokine receptor that consists of interleukin 10 receptor, beta (IL10RB) and interleukin 28 receptor, alpha (IL28RA). (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

UniProtKB Summary for IFNL2
Function: Cytokine with immunomodulatory activity. Up-regulates MHC class I antigen expression. Displays potent antiviral activity. Also displays antitumor activity. Ligand for the heterodimeric class II cytokine receptor composed of IL10RB and IFNLR1. The ligand/receptor complex seems to signal through the Jak-STAT pathway. Seems not to be essential for early virus-activated host defense in vaginal infection, but plays an important role in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced antiviral defense. Plays a significant role in the antiviral immune defense in the intestinal epithelium

[Reference: http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=IFNL2 ]
External IDs
Hgnc ID: 18364 EntrezGene ID: 282616 Ensembl ID: ENSG00000183709
[Reference: http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=IFNL2 ]
Reference Source

Gene Reference Into Function (GeneRIF)

PubMed IDGeneRIF TextLast Update
12469119identified from the human genomic sequence a family of three cytokines, designated interleukin 28A (IL-28A), IL-28B and IL-29, that are distantly related to type I interferons (IFNs) and the IL-10 family2010-01-21
12483210closely positioned genes on human chromosome 19 encode distinct but paralogous proteins, which we designate interferon-lambda1 (IFN-lambda1), IFN-lambda2 and IFN-lambda32010-01-21
15850793IL-28A and IL-29 induced mRNA expression of the antiviral proteins 2',5'-OAS and MxA was abolished by overexpression of SOCS-12010-01-21
15899585we found IL-28A and IL-29 act similarly to IFNs, but are less effective generally and have activity in a more limited range of cell lines2010-01-21
16051921IECs express functional receptors for IFN-lambdas, which mediate antiviral and antiproliferative signals in IECs, suggesting a potential for therapeutic use in certain viral infections and as (antiproliferative) anticancer therapy2010-01-21
16146571IL-28A antiviral activity is associated with the activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and expression of ISGs.2010-01-21
16478884IFN-lambdas are thus able to generate tolerogenic DCs, an activity that could thwart IFN-beta functions2010-01-21
17367910IFNs lambda exhibit several common features with type I IFNs: antiviral activity, antiproliferative activity and in vivo antitumour activity [review]2010-01-21
19193806These data provide direct and compelling evidence that IFN-lambda, through both extracellular and intracellular antiviral mechanisms, inhibits HIV-1 replication in macrophages.2010-01-21
19304895recent findings about the biology of IFN-lambdas and their pathophysiological roles in viral infection, cancer, and immune responses of the innate and adaptive arms.[review]2010-01-21
19798076study supports that IFN-lambdas do not influence every type of cell and that membrane-associated variant IFN-lambda R1 expression is not sufficient to ensure cellular sensitivity toward these cytokines.2010-01-21
20235331Chronic hepatitis C patients with the rs12979860 CC responder genotype may have a lower endogenous IFN response to the virus.2010-06-28
20576307Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)2010-09-15
21145813In general IL-29 serum levels exceeded IL-28A/B at least twofold, with IL-29 and IL-28A/B levels being significantly higher in carriers of the rs12979860 C allele than in TT homozygous individuals in hepatitis C2011-08-20
21170333In contrast to IL-29, IL-28A is a potent gene repressor in patients with hepatitis C2011-07-09
21499846IL-29/IL-28A suppress herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection of human NT2-N neurons.2011-09-17
22253847This study aimed to 1) examine DNA sequences in IL28B surrounding each of the reported associated single nucleotide polymorphisms and the corresponding regions in IL28A.2012-06-02
22560878The results show that IL-28A/IL-28AR1 dyad-induced wound healing migration requires NF-kappaB-mediated MMP-9 expression by MAPK activation.2014-03-01
22825757p38 MAPK pathway mediates IL-28A-induced cell migration through MMP-9 expression by activating NF-kappaB and AP-1 binding motifs.2013-05-25
22891284Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are major producers of IFN-lambda2 (a type III interferon) in response to viral stimulation.2012-12-08
22962576Elevated expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-5, IL-20, and IL-28A) is associated with bladder cancer development.2013-01-26
23207147IFN-lambdas can also directly affect T cells through inhibition of the T helper 2 cell (Th2) responses. IFN-lambdas have varying immunomodulatory functions under different physiological conditions2013-11-16
23652058IL-28 genotype was not associated with response to interferon treatment (OR for GT/GG vs. TT, 0.881 (95%CI 0.388 - 2.002); P = 0.762; OR for CT/CC vs. TT, 0.902 (95%CI 0.458 - 1.778); P = 0.766).2014-01-25
24269996Results showed no association between genotypes and alleles of IL28A, IL28B or IL29 polymorphisms and Hepatitis C virus infection.2015-01-17
24385435Interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 and -7 are the key transcriptional factors for the induction of IL-28A and IL-28B genes, whereas NF-kappaB is an additional requirement for the induction of the IL-29 gene.2014-04-26
24973639this study provides evidence for potential IL-28A participation in Behcet's diseaseand its value as a therapeutic agent.2014-10-11
25355870These results show that type III interferons (IFN-lambdas) play a critical protective role in human metapneumovirus infection.2015-03-21
26194286Studies indicate that the type III interferons (IFNs) or IFN-lambdas consists of four members: IFN-lambda1 (IL-29), IFN-lambda2 (IL28A), IFN-lambda3 (IL-28B) and IFN-lambda4.2015-10-17
26353965NS of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus inhibited the activity of IFN-alpha1, IFN-beta, IFN-lambda1 and IFN-lambda2 through inhibition of STAT1 phosphorylation.2016-05-21


Relevant citations within the PubMed literature


Putative/known Functions


Homologues, Orthologues, Paralogues and Family

Sequence Similarity and Functional Annotation

Post Translational Modifications

Protein Protein Interactions

Best Available Mass Spectra without FDR


Evidence File
Fenyö, David; Beavis, Ronald C. (2015). "The GPMDB REST interface". Bioinformatics 31 (12): 2056–2058. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btv107. ISSN 1367-4803.
http://gpmdb.thegpm.org/ ">Global Proteome Machine Database - THE GPM

Proteomics DB

Evidence File
Wilhelm, M et al. (2014) Mass-spectrometry-based draft of the human proteome. Nature. 509:582-7.
https://www.proteomicsdb.org/ ">Proteomics DB