Gene Name
Protein ID
Chromosome ID
HPP Status
Protein Name

progonadoliberin II

luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone II


gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2

Progonadoliberin II

luliberin II



[Reference: ]
Chromosomal Position
20p13 | Start:3043622 End:3043622

Entrez Gene Summary for GNRH2
The protein encoded by this gene is a preproprotein that is cleaved to form a secreted 10 aa peptide hormone. The secreted decapeptide regulates reproduction in females by stimulating the secretion of both luteinizing- and follicle-stimulating hormones. Three transcript variants that encode unique proproteins but the same peptide hormone have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

UniProtKB Summary for GNRH2
Function: Stimulates the secretion of gonadotropins; it stimulates the secretion of both luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones

[Reference: ]
External IDs
Hgnc ID: 4420 EntrezGene ID: 2797 Ensembl ID: ENSG00000125787
[Reference: ]
Reference Source

Gene Reference Into Function (GeneRIF)

PubMed IDGeneRIF TextLast Update
12447356GnRH-II and GnRH-I interact directly with T cells and trigger gene transcription, adhesion, chemotaxis and homing to specific organs, which may be of clinical relevance.2010-01-21
12663744a novel mechanism in stimulating basal human GnRH-II gene transcription mediated by cooperative actions of multiple regulatory elements within the untranslated first exon of the gene.2010-01-21
12770744regulation of GnRH-I and GnRH-II gene expression in the ovary2010-01-21
12969578gonadotropin releasing hormone-II is more effective than gonadotropin releasing hormone-I in stimulating leptin secretion2010-01-21
14726258GnRH-II has been identified, together with a 'putative' type II GnRH receptor, both in the central nervous system and in peripheral structures, such as tissues of the reproductive tract (both normal and tumoral).2010-01-21
15001648GnRH I and GnRH II have both common and discrete cellular distributions in the placenta and decidua and suggest that these two hormones are capable of eliciting their biological actions in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner2010-01-21
15562029Progesterone receptor isoform p4 is a potent regulator of GnRHRI at the transcriptional level as well as GnRH I mRNA.2010-01-21
15578334GnRH-II did not affect proliferation of normal B-cells alone, and did not alter the proliferative response to IL-2.2010-01-21
17202595we observed that LHRH-(1-5), the specific processed peptide of LHRH-I, upregulates LHRH-II mRNA expression in Ishikawa cells, an endometrial cell line but does not exert any influence on LHRH-I mRNA levels2010-01-21
17296196Expression of GnRH2 protein and receptor (GnRHR2) is confirmed in both leiomyoma and patient-matched myometrium.2010-01-21
17451432these data demonstrate the differential roles of NF-kappaB p65 and RARalpha/RXRalpha, interacting with the same sequence in the promoter of the human GnRH II gene to influence gene expression in a cell-specific manner.2010-01-21
17914092GnRH II is widely expressed in prostate cancer and is an AR-regulated gene.2010-01-21
18467526analysis of how GNRH I and GNRH II inhibit cell growth2010-01-21
18477660GnRH-I and -II induce apoptosis in human granulosa cells through GnRH-I receptors, which mediate the proteolytic caspase cascade involving caspase-8 (the initiator) and caspase-3 and -7 (the effectors).2010-01-21
18599546p-CREB, C/EBPbeta, and CBP are recruited to the CRE of the GnRH-II promoter in a temporarily defined manner to enhance its transcription in JEG-3 and OVCAR-3 cells in response to cAMP2010-01-21
19064572Observational study and meta-analysis of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)2009-01-11
19086053Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)2009-01-11
19453261Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)2009-06-24
19608641These results provide evidence that EGF is an upstream regulator of the autocrine actions of GnRH-II on the invasive properties of ovarian cancer cells.2010-01-21
20018426These preliminary data suggest that local GnRH-II may participate in the regulation of ovarian tumor growth in post-menopausal women.2010-05-10
20379614Clinical trial of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)2010-06-30
21193558results suggest GnRH-II-induced laminin receptor precursor expression increases 67-kDa nonintegrin laminin receptor, which appears to interact with laminin in the extracellular matrix to promote MMP-2 expression and enhance ovarian cancer cell invasion2011-08-06
21239435concluded that GnRHII stimulates PI3K/Akt pathway, and the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase3beta, thereby enhancing the beta-catenin-dependent up-regulation of MT1-MMP production which contributes to ovarian cancer metastasis2011-04-30
23287110GnRHII expression correlated significantly with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients.2014-02-08


Relevant citations within the PubMed literature


Putative/known Functions


Homologues, Orthologues, Paralogues and Family

Sequence Similarity and Functional Annotation

Post Translational Modifications

Protein Protein Interactions

Best Available Mass Spectra without FDR


Evidence File
Fenyö, David; Beavis, Ronald C. (2015). "The GPMDB REST interface". Bioinformatics 31 (12): 2056–2058. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btv107. ISSN 1367-4803. ">Global Proteome Machine Database - THE GPM

Proteomics DB

Evidence File
Wilhelm, M et al. (2014) Mass-spectrometry-based draft of the human proteome. Nature. 509:582-7. ">Proteomics DB